Note 3 – Financial risks
3.1 Financial risk factors
Duni is exposed through its operations to a large number of different financial risks: currency risks, price risks regarding energy consumption and pulp purchases, interest rate risks in cash flow, as well as interest rate risks in fair value, credit risks and liquidity risks. Duni’s overall risk management policy focuses on contingencies on the financial markets.
Risk management is handled by a central finance department (Treasury) in accordance with policies adopted by the Board of Directors. Treasury identifies, evaluates and hedges financial risks in close cooperation with the Group’s operational units. The Board prepares specific policies regarding overall risk management and for specific areas, such as currency risks, interest rate risks, use of derivative and non-derivative financial instruments, as well as the investment of surplus liquidity. The financial hedge relationships established by Duni as an element in its risk management do not qualify for hedge accounting pursuant to the rules in IFRS 9, apart from two exceptions. Duni has taken out interest rate swaps as hedge instruments. The interest rate swaps are recognized in accordance with the rules governing cash flow hedges. The other exception is that part of the assets in newly acquired company BioPak Pty Ltd is hedged using currency forward contracts pursuant to the rules on net investment hedges in foreign currency.
3.1.1 Market risks
Duni operates internationally and is exposed to currency risks which arise from various currencies exposures. Duni’s exposure to changes in exchange rates may be described as translation exposure and transaction exposure. Duni manages its translation exposure and transaction exposure by concentrating the exposure to a small number of Group companies and through a finance policy adopted by the Board of Directors.
Translation exposure – Consolidation
Translation exposure arises when the income statements of subsidiaries are translated to SEK. Translation exposure – consolidation refers to the Group exposure’s in connection with the consolidation and translation of subsidiaries with a different functional currency than the Group’s functional currency, SEK. The Group’s functional currency is the same as its presentation currency. Translation from each company’s functional currency to SEK has a major impact on the Group’s reported revenue and income. At unchanged exchange rates compared with 2017, net sales for the year would have been SEK 218 m lower and the underlying operating income would have been SEK 33 m lower.
Translation exposure – Balance sheet
Duni is also exposed to another type of translation exposure which occurs in the balance sheets of the individual Group companies due to the fact that such balance sheets may include items in a currency other than such Group company’s functional currency. Revaluation of these items to the exchange rate at the balance sheet date is included in the Group’s income. This type of translation exposure is addressed in the section below.
The financial borrowing and lending in the individual subsidiaries is primarily internal through the Parent Company and in the respective subsidiary’s functional currency. In this manner, currency exposure regarding these items has been centralized to the Parent Company. In the Parent Company, 100% of the financial borrowing and lending is hedged in accordance with the Group’s policy, and thus a change in exchange rates has no essential effect on income. The Parent Company’s external borrowing is matched approximately 85% by internal net lending with the same currency breakdown. The remaining 15% of internal net lending is hedged on the currency futures market in accordance with Duni’s policy. Note 29 presents the value and nominal amounts of currency forward contracts entered into regarding borrowing and lending in the Parent Company.
As described in greater detail below in the section addressing transaction exposures, Duni manages its currency risks primarily by concentrating commercial transactions mainly in the functional currencies of the subsidiaries. Thus, as regards the consolidated Group, the translation exposure in the working capital of the individual subsidiaries is assessed as minor.
Had all currencies been 5% higher/lower, due to exposure in the individual subsidiaries and the consolidated balance sheet items the Group’s income would have been approximately +/- SEK 5 m (2017: +/- SEK 5 m). The corresponding figures for the Parent Company are approximately +/- SEK 3 m (2017: +/- SEK 4 m).
There is also exposure in the Group because the Group’s net assets are in subsidiaries with currencies other than SEK. Translation of these net assets results in translation effects that are recognized in other comprehensive income. The Group has a policy that governs when and to what extent this exposure is to be hedged. As of 2018, the Group hedges part of the net assets in newly acquired company BioPak Pty Ltd using currency forward contracts. Currency forward contracts are recognized pursuant to the rules on net investment hedges in foreign currency. The hedge is strictly for financial aims and not for speculative purposes. The derivative instrument meets the criteria for hedge accounting. The impact of the hedge is assessed when the hedging arrangement is entered into. The hedged item and hedging instrument are assessed on an ongoing basis to ensure that the arrangement meets the requirements.
Transaction exposure arises when a company sells and buys in a currency other than its functional currency. The transaction exposure is minimized primarily through external commercial transactions mainly being made in the functional currencies of the subsidiaries. Purchases by subsidiaries, primarily internal, may however be made in currencies other than the subsidiary’s own functional currency, and thus these purchases are exposed to a currency risk. By also directing the internal flows as far as possible to the functional currency of the recipient subsidiary, the currency risk is concentrated to a small number of subsidiaries. Duni’s external outflows are primarily in SEK, USD and PLN, while external inflows are primarily in DKK, NOK, CHF and GBP. Duni’s policy is to not hedge flows in foreign currency in any way other than as is described above.
Duni furthemore does not have a policy to hedge interest payments, whether internal or external.
Duni has an indirect currency risk in USD through the subsidiary Rexcell Tissue & Airlaid AB. Internationally, pulp is priced in USD, and thus a strengthening/weakening of the USD gives rise to increased or reduced purchasing costs for the Group.
Uncertainty about Brexit and what will happen after March 29, 2019 is seen as a risk. Duni’s total net exposure in GBP is approximately SEK 300 m. A change in GBP of +/- 5% would impact income by approximately SEK 15 m.
Energy price risks
Through their energy-intensive operations, production and conversion units are exposed to risks associated with changes in the price of energy, particularly gas and electricity. In those cases where the energy price is not hedged, price changes on the energy market have a direct impact on the company’s income. A change of +/-5% in the price used by all production and conversion units in Europe affects income by approximately -/+ SEK 5 m (2017: SEK 3 m).
During 2018, the subsidiary Rexcell Tissue & Airlaid AB purchased approximately 82,370 MWh of electricity at a cost of approximately SEK 45 m; 4,470 metric tons of LPG for approximately SEK 25 m; and woodchips for the biofuel boiler at a cost of approximately SEK 11 m (2017: 87,393 MWh of electricity for SEK 36 m; 4,493 metric tons of LPG for SEK 19 m; and woodchips for SEK 9 m).
Rexcell Tissue & Airlaid AB has been allocated emission rights for the period 2013 to 2020, divided between Dals Långed and Skåpafors. In 2018, Rexcell Tissue & Airlaid AB had 4,672 (5,130) unused emission rights with a market value of SEK 0 m (0). In total, 13,406 metric tons were used in Skåpafors in 2018. For more information about emission rights, please see the Directors’ Report.
Pulp price risk
OTC trading in financial contracts takes place with respect to certain paper and pulp products, i.e. there is a possibility to reduce the risk of fluctuations in the paper and pulp price. Purchases of paper and pulp are made by the subsidiary, Rexcell Tissue & Airlaid AB. Duni currently has not signed any such contracts. A change of +/- 1% per metric ton in the price of pulp during 2018 affects income by -/+ SEK 5 m (2017: SEK 4 m).
Interest rate risks with respect to cash flows and fair value
Since all external borrowing is at variable interest rates (see Note 31 for more details), Duni is exposed to interest rate risks regarding cash flows, primarily in EURIBOR. The Parent Company’s internal lending and borrowing also takes place at variable rates. Part of the interest rate risk has been hedged at a fixed rate through 5-year interest rate swaps, expiring in August 2019. The interest rate swaps are solely for financially hedging risks, not speculative purposes.
The impact of the hedge is assessed when the hedging arrangement is entered into. The hedged item and hedging instrument are assessed on an ongoing basis to ensure that the arrangement meets the requirements. The Group does not hedge 100% of its loans and therefore only identifies the share of outstanding loans corresponding to the nominal amounts of the interest rate swaps. The financial relationship has been 100% effective because the critical conditions have been matched throughout the year.
Duni has no significant interest-bearing assets. The Group’s revenues and cash flows from operating activities are, in all essential respects, independent of changes in market interest rates. The Group’s interest rate risk with respect to cash flows arises through external borrowing at a variable interest rate. Outstanding loans are entirely in EUR.
Had interest rates on the Group’s borrowing at 12/31/2018 been 100 points higher/lower, with all other variables being constant and taking into account interest rate swaps, Duni’s net financial items for 2018 would have been SEK 8 m lower/higher (2017: SEK 1 m). Other components in equity would have been SEK 6 m lower/higher (2017: SEK 6 m), primarily as a consequence of a decrease/increase in the fair value of interest rate derivatives used as hedge instruments.
Risk of liability to minority owner put option
On October 15, 2018, Duni acquired 75% of the shares in BioPak Pty Ltd in Australia. There is a put option and a call option both parties can opt to exercise within two years amounting to approximately SEK 24 m for an additional 5% of the shares. Duni has an obligation to acquire the remaining 20% of the shares within five years. One of the minority shareholders of BioPak Pty Ltd thus has a put option during the period from October 2023 to April 2024, whereby the redemption price is determined by the future income.
In February 2018, Duni acquired 75% of the shares in Kindtoo Ltd, which is marketed under the name of Biopac UK Ltd. The minority owners of Kindtoo Ltd have a put option during the period from August 2020 to March 2021, whereby the redemption price is determined by the future income and Duni has an obligation to acquire the remaining 25%.
In a previous year, Duni acquired 80% of the shares of New Zealand company United Corporations Limited, which is traded under the name Sharp Serviettes. The minority owners have a put option that may be exercised by the seller during the April–June period in the years 2019–2021. The redemption price is determined by future income multiplied by a given multiple, which results in an obligation for Duni to acquire the remaining 20% of the shares.
Duni recognizes a small part as a short-term and the rest as a long-term derivative liability for these put options equivalent to the discounted expected redemption price for the options. Changes in the value of the derivative instrument are recognized in equity. If the future income of the acquired companies except BioPak Pty LTD increases by 10%, this will generate an impact of SEK 1 m on the Group’s equity. The major impact is in BioPak Pty Ltd. The put option was measured at SEK 336 m at year-end. The value of this option will change depending on the company’s growth and profitability in the coming five years. If the assumed growth and profitability rate increase or decrease by 10%, the value of the put option would change by approximately +/- SEK 18 m.
3.1.2 Credit risks
Credit risks are managed on a Group level. Credit risks arise through cash and cash equivalents, derivative instruments and balances held with banks and financial institutions, as well as credit exposure in relation to the Group’s customers, including outstanding receivables and agreed transactions.
Only banks and financial institutions with a long-term credit rating from an independent rating agency of at least A- (minus) or better are accepted. The total amount deposited or invested in a bank or a single finance company may not exceed SEK 150 m.
All new large customers are subject to a credit rating assessment by an independent rating agency. In those cases where there is no independent credit rating, a risk assessment is made regarding the customer’s creditworthiness with consideration given to the customer’s financial position, previous experience and other factors. Individual risk limits are established based on internal or external credit assessments in accordance with the limits established by the Board. The use of credit limits is monitored regularly.
The maximum credit risk consists of the book value of the exposed assets, including derivatives with positive market values.
Receivables overdue by more than 180 days accounted for 0.89% of total accounts receivable (2017: 0.77%). For the Parent Company, the corresponding figure is 1.30% (2017: 1.22%).
3.1.3 Liquidity risk
Duni’s liquidity risk consists of the possibility of the Group lacking cash and equivalents for the payment of its obligations. The risk is managed within Duni by Treasury ensuring that sufficient cash and cash equivalents are available through financing, agreed credit facilities (these are described in greater detail in Note 31) and the possibility to close market positions.
As per December 31, 2018, Duni had cash and equivalents of SEK 260 m (2017: SEK 227 m) as well as a non-utilized credit facility of SEK 843 m (2017: SEK 1,300 m). Payments for coming periods relating to financial liabilities are shown in the tables below.
Duni’s credit facility is subject to covenants consisting of a financial key ratio as well as a number of non-financial conditions. The financial key ratio comprises financial net debt as a percentage of the underlying EBITDA. The interest margin is calculated based on the same key ratio and adjusted based on given levels each quarter. This key ratio is used solely for compliance with the credit facilities and is thus not a key ratio defined by Duni.
Duni’s financing agreement was signed on December 18, 2017. The financing is long term and consists of two loan facilities with revolving borrowing in EUR. The two facilities total EUR 200 m. During the year, an extension option was exercised for the facility amounting to EUR 150 m, putting the expiration date in December 2021. The facility of EUR 50 m matures in June 2020. Duni has the possibility to freely use the facilities based on the Company’s liquidity needs within the term of the facility. In addition to this financing, there is a put call totaling EUR 10 m which matures in May 2019. There are overdraft facilities in place totaling EUR 17 m that had not been used at December 31, 2018.
The table below shows the Group’s contracted outstanding non-discounted interest payments and repayments on financial liabilities and liabilities regarding derivative instruments:
|1-3 months||3-12 months||More than 1 year but within 5 years|
|SEK m||Carrying amount||Interest||Repay- |
|Bank loans||-1 502||-1||–||–||-103||–||-1 399|
|Accounts payable and other liabilities||-567||–||-567||–||–||–||–|
|– Currency forward contracts*||0||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|– Interest rate swaps||-3||-1||–||–||-3||–||–|
|– Liability for minority shareholder put option||-348||–||–||–||-9||–||-340|
|Derivative instruments – Liabilities||-351||-1||0||0||-12||0||-340|
|– Currency forward contracts*||1||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|– Interest rate swaps||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Derivative instruments – Assets||1||0||0||0||0||0||0|
|Total||-2 419||-2||-567||0||-115||0||-1 739|
|* Gross inflows are reported in the table below.|
The market value of the derivative instruments is broken down by derivative type as follows:
|Currency forward contracts||1||-9|
|Interest rate swaps||-3||-5|
|Liability for put option of minority owners*||-348||-11|
* For liability for put option of minority owners, see Note 29.
Currency forward contracts are settled gross. The table below shows these currency forward contracts, broken down by the time remaining on the balance sheet date until the contractual expiration date. The amounts stated below are the contractual non-discounted amounts.
|Currency forward contracts|
|– Inflow regarding contracts for financial assets and liabilities||394||771|
|– Outflow regarding contracts for financial assets and liabilities||-393||-777|
All flows are due and payable within one year. Financial currency forward contracts relate to both internal and external liabilities and receivables.
The above presentation includes all financial liabilities and derivative instruments with negative and positive values. Amounts in foreign currency and amounts paid based on a variable rate of interest have been estimated through the use of the prevailing exchange rates on the balance sheet date and the most recent interest rate adjustments. Total repayment does not always correspond to the carrying amount. This is due to the fact that the Group’s transaction costs in connection with the arrangement of loans are booked against the loan.
Impact of hedge accounting on the Group’s financial position and performance
The effects of hedge accounting of the impact of currency risks on the Group’s financial position and performance are shown below:
Net investment in foreign operations
|Recognized amount (AUD m)||63||–|
|Nominal amount of hedging instruments (AUD m)||21||–|
|Weighted average of forward prices during the year (including forward points)||6,3807||–|
The hedged item is estimated to, in all material respects, have the same change in fair value as the hedging instrument.
Derivative instruments – Interest rate swaps
|Recognized amount (EUR m)||40||40|
|Nominal amount of hedging instruments (EUR m)||40||40|
|Weighted average of the variable interest rate during the year||-0.324%||-0.325%|
The hedged item is estimated to, in all material respects, have the same change in fair value as the hedging instrument.
|SEK k||Interest rate swaps||Currency forwards|
|Balance at 1/1/2017||-5 965||0|
|Plus: Change in fair value of hedging instrument recognized in other comprehensive income||2 654||–|
|Less deferred tax||-584||–|
|Balance at 12/31/2017||-3 895||0|
|Plus: Change in fair value of hedging instrument recognized in other comprehensive income||2 952||3 267|
|Less deferred tax||-662||-699|
|Balance at 12/31/2018||-1 605||2 568|
The hedge expense is included in the table above and its amount is negligible.
3.2 Management of capital risk
Duni’s objective with respect to its capital structure is to ensure the Group’s ability to continue its operations. The Group assesses capital on the basis of the net debt/equity ratio. This key ratio is calculated as interest-bearing net debt divided by total capital. The interest-bearing net debt is calculated as total borrowings less cash and cash equivalents. Total capital is calculated as total equity in the consolidated balance sheet plus net debt.
The net debt/equity ratio is as follows:
Total shareholders’ equity
|Total borrowings||1 502||834|
|Other long-term receivables||2||2|
|Allocation to pensions||255||244|
|Long-term interest-bearing receivable||-9||–|
|Less: cash and cash equivalents||-260||-227|
|Interest-bearing net debt*||1 490||855|
|2 616||2 594|
|Total capital||4 106||3 449|
|Net debt/equity ratio||36%||25%|
|* The calculation of interest-bearing net debt is exclusive of derivatives.|
3.3 Calculation of fair value
The fair value of derivatives traded on an active market is based on the listed market prices on the balance sheet date. The listed market price used for the Group’s financial assets is the current bid price.
The fair value of financial instruments which are not traded on an active market (e.g. OTC derivatives) is determined through the use of valuation techniques. The Group uses a number of different methods and makes assumptions based on the market conditions prevailing on the balance sheet date. Listed market prices or broker listings for similar instruments are used with respect to long-term liabilities. Other techniques, such as calculation of discounted cash flows, are used to establish the fair value of the remaining financial instruments. The fair value of interest rate swaps is calculated as the present value of estimated future cash flows. The fair value of currency forward contracts is established through the use of listed prices for currency forward contracts on the balance sheet date.
The carrying amount of accounts receivable and accounts payable, less any impairment, is assumed to correspond to fair value since these items are short-term in nature. For information purposes, the fair value of financial liabilities is calculated by discounting the future contracted cash flows to the current market interest rate which is available to the Group for similar financial instruments.
Pursuant to the standard for financial instruments, disclosure is required regarding measurement to fair value per level in the following fair value hierarchy:
Level 1 – Listed prices (unadjusted) on active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2 – Other observable data for assets or liabilities comprises listed prices included in Level 1, either directly (as price) or indirectly (derived from price).
Level 3 – Data for assets or liabilities which is not based on observable market data.
As stated in Note 32, Duni has derivative instruments measured at fair value and for hedging purposes.All derivative instruments are classified in Level 2, except for the put option to the minority shareholders, which is classified in level 3.